Research over the past 30 years has demonstrated that excessive alcohol use meets all of the epidemiological criteria for causality. While neither a necessary nor a sufficient cause, excessive alcohol use does contribute to the occurrence of partner violence and that contribution is approximately equal to other contributing causes such as gender roles, anger, and marital functioning. Current theories of how excessive drinking results in partner violence provide a potentially valuable framework concerning who should be targeted for interventions for alcohol‐related partner violence and what those interventions should address.
Based on my research I found out that intimate partner violence is a serious, preventable public health problem affecting more than 35 million Americans Extent, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence; findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey by (Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000). The term “intimate partner violence” describes physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current, former partner or spouse. This type of violence can occur among same-sex couples and does not require sexual intimacy. IPV can vary in frequency and severity. It happens on a continuum, ranging from one hit that may or may not impact the victim to chronic, severe battering. Victims of domestic violence, who are overwhelming women are at high risk for mental problems (Intimate partner violence, Intervention in primary health settings by Carlson and McNutt, 1998).
There are four main types of intimate partner violence (Intimate partner violence surveillance; uniform definitions and recommended data elements by (Saltzman et al. 2002).
Physical abuse is the deliberate use of physical force with the potential for causing death, disability, injury, or harm. or the use of a weapon, and use of restraints or one’s body, size, or strength against another person.” Emotional, Physical, Sexual, and Psychological Emotional violence may involve trauma to the victim caused by acts, threats of actions, or other coercive tactics. Compared to white women, Latinas tend to be younger, to have lower socioeconomic backgrounds and lower educational levels, factors that are known to increase intimate partner violence. (Sociodemographic predictors and cultural barriers to help-seeking behavior by Latina and Angle American battered by Latina and Anglo American battered women by West, Kantor and Jasinski, 1998).
Sexual violence According to the organization RAINN, intimate partner sexual Violence says a perpetrator can have any relationship to a victim, and that includes the role of an intimate partner. RAINN organization is the largest anti-sexual violence organization; they offer 24/7 free, confidential hotline. They are helping survivors and educating the public; they provide consulting and training. Survivors began sharing their experiences of the sexual violence in a Unified statement -#MeToo. “It’s been essential and valuable for me to recognize when I feel supported or not and to be willing to walk away. I don’t have to accept someone else’s version of my story. (Ethan, survivor). I have spoken mostly about women, but men can be the victim of IPV.
Psychological and verbal abuse is any abusive behavior that uses emotions to intimidate the victim, such as threatening the victim or stalking the victim. Stalking is a pattern of repeated and unwanted attention, harassment contact, or any other course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear. Someone can also use technology to stalk an individual; this is known as cyberstalking.
In the field of practice, intimate partner violence among Latino households has increased over the years. Krishnan et al. (1997) in Documenting domestic violence among ethnically diverse populations results from a preliminary study, noted that approximately 61% of Anglo Americans reported experiencing partner violence in the past compared with 36.5% of Latina women in the U.S. There is a need to address the specific requirements of the Latina situation.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with severe consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the San Paulo State Security Department merged with who multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women’s probably of experiencing IPV.
The claims about the IPV emerged after the feminism wave as women have learned about their rights. They were more aggressive in demanding equal treatment with their male counterparts. The claims of the claims-makers resonate with broader cultural worries at the time. The claims makers succeed in capturing the attention of audiences and in persuading them to accept their claims, while the majority of conditions that could be called social problems remain marginalized and unexamined. This is owing to the changing attitudes in society and the effect of globalization that results in the emergence of contemporary values that are against domestic violence. IPV is her to stay, and more efforts need to be made by the claim makers to control its levels globally. There have been positive changes made by society to eradicate IPV, and the future is not easy for the claim-maker if at all the fight against it is to be won.
Domestic violence has severe psychological and physical consequences for a victim that is why it must be prevented. Moreover, intimate partner violence has become a world pandemic, and urgent measures should be taken to stop it. First, it is necessary to conduct educational work with victims and possible victims regarding domestic violence. Prevention of domestic abuse is possible through the promotion of healthy relationships. Women, especially teenagers must be taught that normal relations presuppose trust, respect, kindness, and care. Most women neglect first signs of violence such as threats, verbal abuse, and control that is why it is crucial to teach women to recognize those sings before committing to close relationships. (Campbell et al., 2007)
There must be stricter laws in Domestic abuse, and the abuser needs to receive treatment, a lot of times the abuser has learned his behavior and needs to be counseled. Psychological counseling or group therapy prove to be affecting in dealing with perpetrator’s problems (Domestic Violence Perpetrator Treatment, 2010). On a personal note, I feel that if the victim weren’t blamed or must prove a sexual act has happened, more people would come forward. A person who has gone through years of abuse loses trust of themselves and of other people. Hopefully with more awareness through media on Intimate Partner Violence people will feel more comfortable coming forward and getting the help that they need to remove themselves from the abuse.
Kiss, L., Schraiber, L. B., Hossain, M., Watts, C., & Zimmerman, C. (2015). The link between community-based violence and intimate partner violence: The effect of crime and male aggression on intimate partner violence against women. Prevention Science, 16(6), 881-889 Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498283/
Leonard, K. E., & Quigley, B. M. (2016). Thirty years of research show alcohol to be a cause of intimate partner violence: Future research needs to identify who to treat and how to treat them. Drug and Alcohol Review, 36(1), 7-9. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/dar.12434
Yalch, M. M., Levendosky, A. A., Bernard, N. K., & Anne Bogat, G. (2017). Main and moderating effects of temperament traits on the association between intimate partner violence and hazardous alcohol use in a sample of young adult women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(20), 1-18. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280582256_Main_and_Moderating_Influence_of_Temperament_Traits_on_the_Association_Between_Intimate_Partner_Violence_and_Trauma_Symptoms
Krishanan, S. P., Hilber, .C., VanLeeuwen. D., & Kolia, R. (1997). Documenting domestic violence among ethnically diverse populations. Results from a preliminary study. Family and Community Health, 20, 32-48,
(n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.rainn.org/articles/stalking. Sexual violence against partners. Statistics.